Due to scarcity of spectrum at conventional cellular frequencies (CCF), the use of higher frequencies such as mmWave has been proposed for 5G cellular networks. The cellular systems consist of multiple networks, each deployed by an independent cellular operator with possibly closed access only to its customers. It is worth noting that communication at mmWave frequencies has non-trivial differences when compared to communication at CCF.
5G Cellular Networks
Massive multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO) is a promising technique for 5G cellular networks. Prior work showed that high throughput can be achieved with a large number of base station antennas through simple signal processing in massive MIMO networks.