## Understanding Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks: Multi-slope Path Loss Models and Analysis

Existing cellular network analyses, and even simulations, typically use the standard path loss model where received power decays *1/d^x* over a distance *d*, with a pathloss exponent *x*. This model leads to tractable analysis of downlink cellular network performance with base stations distributed by a Poisson point process. However, it is widely known that this standard path loss model is quite idealized, and that in most scenarios the path loss exponent *x* is itself a function of *d*.